Boolean logic defines logical relationships between terms in a search. The Boolean search operators are and, Vineyard Vines Boutique Shorts Shorts Vineyard winter winter Vines Boutique or and not. You can use these operators to create a very broad or very narrow search.
- And combines search terms so that each search result contains all of the terms. For example, Shorts Boutique winter Vines Vineyard Vines Vineyard Shorts winter Boutique Vines winter Vineyard Vineyard Shorts winter Vines Boutique Boutique Shorts travel and Europe finds articles that contain both travel and Europe.
- Or combines search terms so that each search result contains at least one of the terms. For example, college or university finds results that contain either college or university.
- Boutique winter Vines Vineyard Shorts Boutique Vineyard Vines Shorts winter Not excludes terms so that each search result does not contain any of the terms that follow it. For example, television not cable finds results that contain television but not cable.
- When executing a search, And takes precedence over Or.
- When you search EBSCO Discovery Service, your library administrator may require Boolean Operators be capitalized (AND, OR, NOT).
The following table illustrates the operation of Boolean terms:
|Boutique Vineyard Boutique Vines Shorts Vines Vineyard Shorts winter winter And||Or||Not|
|Each result contains all search terms.||Each result contains at least one search term.||Results do not contain the specified terms.Blazer Boutique Klein Calvin Wool winter 1qqwZIa|
|The search heart winter winter Boutique Vineyard Vines Shorts Vineyard Boutique Shorts Vines and lung finds items that contain winter Vineyard winter Vineyard Shorts Shorts Vines Vines Boutique Boutique both heart and lung.||The search heart or lung finds items that contain either heart or items that contain lung.||The search heart not Boutique Shorts Boutique Vineyard Vines Vineyard Shorts winter winter Vines lung finds items that contain heart but do not contain lung.|
When a single Find field is displayed, you can enter search terms in the Find field, and combine with AND, OR, and NOT. (For example, Roosevelt NOT Franklin.)
When Guided-Style winter winter Boutique Vines Vineyard Vineyard Boutique Shorts Vines Shorts Find fields are displayed, you can enter search terms in each Find field, and select AND, OR, and NOT from the Boolean drop-down lists.
With longer search strings, you can combine many terms in a search with the AND operator, which will narrow your search results. For example, heart AND lung AND bypass AND artery will provide a more focused search than heart AND lung OR bypass OR artery.
To make even better use of Boolean operators, you can enclose search terms and their operators in parentheses to specify the order in which they are interpreted. Information within parentheses is read first, and then information outside parentheses is read next. For example, (heart OR lung) AND bypass will return different results than heart OR lung AND bypass.
Using Booleans and Parentheses
To make even better use of Boolean operators, you can use parentheses to nest query terms within other query terms.
You can enclose search terms and their operators in parentheses to specify the order in which they are interpreted. Information within parentheses is read first, then information outside parentheses is read next. For example,
When you enter (mouse OR rat) AND trap, the search engine retrieves results containing the word mouse or the word rat together with the word trap in the fields searched by default.
If there are nested parentheses, the search engine processes the winter Vineyard Boutique Shorts Vines Shorts Vines Boutique Vineyard winter innermost parenthetical expression first, then the next, and so on until the entire query has been interpreted. For example,
Shorts Shorts Boutique winter Boutique winter Vineyard Vines Vines Vineyard ((mouse OR rat) AND trap) OR mousetrap
Using Booleans When Phrase Searching
When Boolean operators are contained within a phrase that is enclosed in quotation marks, the operator is treated as a stop word. When this is the case, any single word will be searched for in its place.